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Développer l'autonomie personnelle

Il est important d’enseigner aux enfants autistes les techniques de la vie pour leur permettre de mener une vie indépendante. Avant de commencer un programme d'enseignement en libre-service, vous devez déterminer si les comportements de base nécessaires pour aider l'enfant à acquérir chaque compétence et si les étapes nécessaires sont acquises ou doivent être enseignées.

Lors de la définition des objectifs, nous devons également prendre en compte l’âge moyen auquel les enfants ayant un développement typique parviennent à acquérir certaines capacités. À l'âge de 6, un enfant typique devrait avoir acquis la majorité des compétences en libre-service, mais chaque compétence s'inscrit dans une plage chronologique assez large, les facteurs environnementaux influant sur le moment où un enfant acquiert une capacité particulière.

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Information additionnelle

Objectif:
Indépendant / compétences de vie
Âge des étudiants:
2, 14
Domaine du programme:
Pas de lien
Période de l'année:
Toute l'année
Description étape par étape, y compris les actions à développer pour la préparation et la mise en œuvre:
Before starting self-service skills teaching program, you need to determine whether the basic behaviors needed to help the child learn each skill and the necessary steps are acquired or must be taught. The most important skills are: 1) attention and concentration of the child in pregnancy (5-10 min) 2) visual contact, name response, and "look" 3) to follow simple instructions 4) imitate the actions of others 5) to know how to choose The latter ability is important in order to identify the rewards he likes the most so that the effort is rewarded enough that the next time will put as much effort into carrying the task at the end. According to Dr Stephen R. Anderson, BCBA (Self-Serving Skills for Autistic People, 2013), the 5 steps are: 1. Clearly specify the learning objective 2. Sharing complex skills in intermediate stages 3. Systematic teaching method 4. Evaluation of progress (data collection and evaluation) 5. Modify the teaching method if this is necessary to achieve the desired goal A correctly established goal is to meet the four conditions: a. The instructional context that relates to establishing the expectations and the conditions in which the skill will be taught, including the prompt the child might receive (eg "after the clothes are arranged in bed order and the mother asks him to dress ", the baby dresses alone). So the context only represents the place where it will be taught, but also the way the child can learn or the adaptations that we must make to give the child the opportunity to work independently. b. Be observable and measurable, that is, the specification of what the child should learn (for example, we will not have the objective of "improving the ability to clothe", but "the child can put his own trousers down"). c. Can be taught within a few months. If we have a complex objective, we divide it into smaller steps that can be learned faster, thus forming a bigger goal than small steps. d. Mastery criteria are important to remember and share with others when you start the intervention so that you all have the same vision of the child's success. When referring to the mastery criteria, we must take into account the acquisition criteria, which refer to the number of rehearsals, the number of prompts from the therapist and the number of sessions to be made by the caretaker, which involve specifying the period of during which the child has to prove that he / she learned the item before considering it as master. For example: The purchase criterion is "8 out of 10 responses, 2 different sessions with 2 different therapists" and the maintenance criterion: "In at least 2 different days". At the beginning we are evaluate the level for each children and the abilities who must to learn. For each goal/activity we have to establish the number of the steps required for learning. After that we are choosing the pictures and the sequence for each skill. For each step we can learning progressive and regressive chaining. For the progressive chaining we are prompting the children for the first step and all the steps we are doing with prompt. We are continuing like this until all the steps are learning. The regressive chaining it is used more often than progressive. For the all sequence the children is prompting but at the final , at the last step the children trying to do itself. For an appropriate response he will receive the reinforcement. One of the two patterns will be used to teach abilities according to the abilities of each child. For children who do not support postponement of the reward, progressive chaining will be used, but if this approach is chosen, rewards that can be consumed quickly or food dishes) or that are not intrusive (tapping the palm) so you can get back to the learning session quickly. If a child encounters difficulties at a certain intermediate stage, this step will be worked out separately from the rest of the program in a mini-sessions. If the activity overlaps on tactile / auditory sensitivity, desensitization strategies will be attempted, and when the child learns to accept the subject / food, we can begin to teach it with a step-based work structure. Component analysis sheet : Wash the hand Component Analysis Sheet: Handwashing TARGET CAPABILITY: Wash your hands OBJECTIVE : to wash his hands alone by needing at most a prompt, for three consecutive occasions. INSTRUCTION: Wash your hands TEACHING METHOD (circular) PROGRESSIVE REGRESSIVE Component ability Date 1 Go to the sink 2 Extend your hand to the tap 3 Open the tap 4 Put your hands wet 5 Take your hand to the soap 6 Press the soap (liquid) 7 Put your hand under the lid 8 Grab your hands 9 Put your hands under the water jet 10 Rinse your hands and rinse 11 Take your hand to the tap 12 Close the tap 13 Shake hands 14 Go to the towel 15 Take the towel 16 Deletes the hands 17 Put the towel back in place
Ressources à utiliser, y compris les ressources humaines, les matériaux et les espaces:
Ressources: Heure - Minutes 30 de chaque jour Enseignants et famille Images et séquences Matériel: Différents objets adaptés à chaque enfant (toilette spéciale avec sons, la brosse à dents, le couteau, la cuillère, la vaisselle, les vêtements). Espaces: Toilettes, cuisine- l'espace dépend du type de but
Difficultés rencontrées lors de sa mise en œuvre:
Déficit sensoriel et faible niveau de compétences de la vie. Un gros problème avec cela est le manque de temps. Cet enchaînement sera apprendre après quelques répétitions. Pour cette répétition, nous avons besoin de temps au centre et il est également très important que la famille le fasse et continue à la maison. Pour les enfants autistes, nous savons que la généralisation est un apprentissage si difficile que nous devons apprendre dès le début avec différentes personnes la même capacité, dans différents endroits et avec différents objets.
La page web officielle de la bonne pratique:
http://www.asociatiazbordefluturi.ro/
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